The profession is a mental focus on a certain type of work, the implementation of which requires the relevant habits and skills acquired through educational and professional training or direct practical experience.
The main characteristics of the profession are determined depending on:
- the content of the work
- the subject of the work
- the means of labor
Through the profession a person is realized in society, through it he creates values for society and himself, ensuring his existence.
Professions are not static units, they develop with the development of the means of labor, with the change of the subject of labor, and acquire new content. So, some professions are changing, but new ones are being created, while others are dropping out. Reference: “Labor Market and Economic Activity“, https://w-europe.org/labor-market-and-economic-activity/
Once professionally trained, a person often has to retrain, which makes it necessary to create in people attitudes to constant change. Tragic are the recent studies of the unemployed, which do not change and adapt to new activities.
The harmonization of the requirements of the professional activity and the individual attitudes (interests) largely determine the very oriented towards the profession, towards greater professional achievements.
Analysis of professions
For the proper implementation of the contact between the person and the professional activity, an analysis of the professions is necessary.
Starting in general from the psychological structure of work, namely that it consists of motives, goals, actions, operations, and results, we can conclude that these must be subject to analysis from a psychological point of view to optimize the “person – professional activity” ratio. Read more: The profession of the manager: How to become one, https://scrumtime.org/profession-of-the-manager/
The study of the profession began in 1912 with the methodology created by Lippman. It consists of 150 questions, through which on a 4-point scale should be determined how important for a profession is the given professional quality. The degrees are: 1) “not necessary”; 2) “little needed”; 3) “average required”; 4) “necessary”.
An attempt has been made to include almost all mental areas of the personality, its qualities, and its properties.
As a result of this methodology and the answers given by prominent representatives of a profession, the so-called PROFILE OF THE PROFESSION can be made. On its basis, the professionally significant qualities are easily outlined, which are further subject to evaluation.
Later, attempts to analyze the profession continued and a new methodology was built, called PSYCHOPROFESSIONGRAPHY, and the result is the so-called. PSYCHOPROFESSIONAL.
Types of psychoprofessiograms:
The so-called descriptive
They are made for professional orientation and general acquaintance with the professional activity of non-specialists who have an interest in the respective profession.
The descriptive psychoprofessiogram contains 3 parts, which include:
a) First part – general information about the activity, namely:
what kind of professional activity it is, the prestige of the profession, necessary training, education, necessary work experience, working conditions, pay, opportunities for realization, and for raising the qualification.
These general things about the profession are formed as a result of research of documents and expert assessments.
b) Second part – the actual psychoprofessiogram.
Based on observations and expert assessments, the most important mental qualities that a person must possess to practice this profession are entered. The descriptive psychoprofessiogram does not require research and methodologies. It is made only based on observations and conversations with specialists.
c) Third part.
Includes those qualities that are contraindicated for the profession (illness, physical or mental disabilities).
Psychoprofessiogram required for professional selection.
The difference is mainly in the second part of the psychoprofessiogram, the implementation of which requires research (ie preliminary work).
To carry out the analysis of the profession in this type of psychoprofessiogram, a certain battery of methods must be available that can study different aspects of the personality – qualities and abilities, typological characteristics, personality characteristics.
It is necessary to have at least a few methodologies that can examine a certain quality to check which of them is the most reliable for the specific professional activity.
a) First step.
Through these methodologies, research is conducted in the profession, looking for the reliability and validity of the respective methodology for research of a given quality. The methodology for measuring professionally significant qualities is chosen.
b) Second step.
Defining the criteria. The defined methods are used to study groups in this profession (mostly groups of excellent and mediocre workers). This determines which of the methodologies examines the professionally significant qualities for the specific profession. Methods that show statistically significant differences between the two groups are usually chosen.
c) the Third step.
Once these criteria are linked, different groups in the profession are surveyed to create the so-called norms according to this methodology in the specific profession, based on which the professional selection is made.
The psychoprofessional chart can be presented in quantitative terms (which is necessary for the second type) to know the limits of the norms and which persons are suitable for this profession. It can also be presented graphically – to outline the profile of the profession (using methodologies).
The analysis of professional activity is necessary for almost all activities that are performed by staff and which an organization must undertake.
Analysis of the workplace and tasks
So far we have talked about professionally-oriented selection (staff appraisal, incentives, training through courses, promotion in the hierarchy), ie. to decide the professional career of each person in the organization.
Recently, there has been talked of analysis of the workplace, the work task (and not the profession as a whole). When analyzing the professional activity, attention is generally paid to:
– the content of the work itself (work operations and actions;
– analysis of social relationships at work;
– analysis of the physical conditions of the environment (hazards, etc.);
– the organization of the work itself (work regime, incentives, pay, sanctions, control, etc.).
On this basis, different authors create their methodologies for activity analysis (eg with different scales, questionnaires, etc.). A methodology can also be used to gather information on the “ideal characteristics” of work.
There are different methods for activity analysis:
Eg Methodology Assessment Center.
An analysis of the activity must also be made before starting this evaluation.
The characteristics of this methodology come down to the fact that it is “broader (with more criteria) and is based on an expert assessment by managers in this professional activity.
The methodology is used not only for analysis of the overall profession (in a profession has different jobs – with different organization and working conditions, although the subject is the same) but also for the evaluation of the activity of a particular workplace. analysis of labor operations “.
These are newer and more complex analyzes.
Assessment Center Methodology
The Assessment Center methodology is for the analysis of labor operations and for determining the criteria for behavior in the performance of labor tasks. It consists of 4 questionnaires:
a) First questionnaire.
– the name of the workplace and the professional activity; the position of this job in the hierarchy of the organization; the links that the worker must have with other jobs (horizontally and vertically);
– in what categories are the results of this job reported (related to the objectives of this type of work); who are the consumers of these results (for whom and how many people are they intended); objectives (expected results); the prospects for change in the requirements of this job.
b) Second questionnaire (so-called situation analysis).
It attempts to analyze the situations typical of this workplace:
– whether the workplace is related to individual work and what part of the working time a person works individually. Examples of individual work should also be provided; to determine the ratio (in%) of individual work to other types of work (related to contact with other people).
– Indicate situations in which we work in a dialogical form (advice, negotiations, telephone conversations). Examples; ratio with other types of work.
– group situations in which you work in groups (with more than two people). Assessment of whether they are internal or external persons to the organization; examples; ratio.
– taking into account critical situations that require exceptional risk-related efforts, major accidents. Examples.
– a description of the circumstances that aggravate the work of the person in the workplace, as well as external influences and changes that affect (or are expected to affect) the work.
c) the Third questionnaire.
It is related to the requirements for:
– preliminary training; degree of education (general and professional qualification); additional courses; work experience. Why such requirements (motivation)?
– outlines some of the most important personal characteristics needed to work in this job. A list of criteria (personal characteristics, qualities, and qualities) that are relevant to the performance (activity) of this job is presented. On a 4-point scale (from “inappropriate quality” to “critical”), experts must determine the degree of importance of quality.
Example: List of criteria for ahead of primary unit in the following categories:
* communication (hearing, speech, and written communication);
* social behavior (leadership, contact, teamwork skills);
* leadership skills (delegation of rights, skills for management control, planning, organizing);
* problem-solving behavior (creative attitude, taking into account the circumstances outside the organization, ability to analyze problems);
* motivated behavior (ambition, energy, initiative, established standards for achievement, orientation to consumers of the product of labor);
* personal behavior (adaptability, meticulousness, determination, discipline, risk-taking, resilience to stress, perseverance).
All these criteria are evaluated from 1 to 4, and for each criterion, there is an explanation of what it is, because it is filled in by experts – non-specialists in the field of psychology, who need to know what the criteria include.
After at least 15-20 people (experts) give their assessment according to the criteria, those criteria that have received the most grades 4 are separated, after which 10-15 qualities are derived from them, arranged in order of importance.
d) the Fourth questionnaire.
It is on these 10-15 significant qualities that the assessments of the personal characteristics of the people who work (or apply) for a job are performed.
Unlike previous methodologies, the Assessment Center methodology does not only assess personal qualities and characteristics but focuses on human behavior in the workplace.
The main purpose of these analyzes is to match the personal profile to the profile of the profession so that the employee is adequate in the workplace.
The first step after that is what kind of staff will be selected for the job – through the so-called. psychological professional selection.